« My Min-i-ren(2) | トップページ | My Min-i-ren(4) »

2023年6月18日 (日)

My Min-i-ren(3)

The Constitution of Japan advocates popular sovereignty and the right to peaceful existence, and establishes basic human rights as universal rights that have been acquired through the long-standing freedom of humanity and can never be violated. However, these rights are being neglected. We uphold the ideals of this constitution, further develop our progress, and strive for a society where all people are equally respected as human beings."

In this case, a problem arises as to whether the name "right to life," which can also be interpreted as guaranteeing only the minimum line of survival, is appropriate as the name for the human rights we aim for. Therefore, the term "right to health" comes to mind. However, the movement fought under the name of the right to life, especially the lawsuit brought against the state by Asahi Shigeru, a brave tuberculosis patient, based on Article 25 of the Constitution, which is known as a "human rights trial," has strongly remained in people's memories, and there is a deep attachment to the term "right to life" created through that process.

The issue of "right to exist or right to health" seems to be simply a matter of nomenclature, but accepting the name "right to health" required the discovery and convergence of another idea. This will be discussed in the next chapter.

  1. Declaration of the Right to Health or Health Strategy

The right to exist mentioned in Japan's constitution is referred to as the right to health on a global scale.

The right to health was established as a wording in the WHO Constitution in 1948 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Since then, similar content has been repeatedly declared in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Article 12 (1976), and the General Comment No. 14 on the Right to Health of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (2000).

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14 on the Right to Health (2000):

Health is a fundamental human right indispensable for the exercise of other human rights. Every human being has the right to the highest attainable standard of health in order to live a dignified life.

In fact, the repetition of such declarations implies that mere declarations alone have not brought about any real change. This is similar to the criticism Amartya Sen directed at John Rawls. Sen argued that there are two approaches to justice: 1) those who try to achieve perfect justice by creating ideal systems or laws (Kant, Rawls), and 2) those who try to remove evident injustice from the world (Marx, Sen).

As this criticism suggests, in order for the right to health to be realized, repeating ideal declarations is meaningless, and some concrete practical strategies are required.

The start of the health strategy was the Alma-Ata Declaration in 1978. However, the first phase of the health strategy, Primary Health Care, was confined within a non-political framework due to the power struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, and it remained partial and selective.

The second phase of the health strategy, Health Promotion, which started with the Ottawa Charter in 1986, also placed emphasis on "individual empowerment" based on personal responsibility, rather than social reform, amidst the onslaught of neoliberalism. In Japan, the government-led movement called "Health Japan 21" was launched by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare but achieved little success.

The prospect of actually improving the health of people around the world was obtained when Michael Marmot established the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) and the third phase of the health strategy, Health Promotion based on SDH, emerged.

|

« My Min-i-ren(2) | トップページ | My Min-i-ren(4) »

コメント

コメントを書く



(ウェブ上には掲載しません)




« My Min-i-ren(2) | トップページ | My Min-i-ren(4) »